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Tuesday, March 12, 2013


Vatican City, 12 March 2013 (VIS) – This evening at 7:42pm, black smoke rose from the chimney installed on the roof of the Sistine Chapel signalling that the Cardinal electors have not elected a new Pope in the first ballot of the Conclave.


Vatican City, 12 March 2013 (VIS) – The 115 cardinals who will elect the Pope entered the Pauline Chapel at 4:15pm. There Cardinal Giovanni Battista Re, dean of the assembly, making the sign of the Cross, pronounced: “May the Lord, who guides our hearts in the love and patience of Christ, be with you all.” After this brief prayer, he invited those gathered to begin the procession towards the Sistine Chapel, where the Conclave will be held, saying: “Venerable Brothers, after having celebrated the divine mystery, we now enter into Conclave to elect the Roman Pontiff. The entire Church, joined with us in prayer, constantly calls upon the grace of the Holy Spirit, to elect from among us a worthy Pastor of all of Christ's flock. May the Lord direct our steps along the path of truth, so that, through the intercession of the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Apostles Peter and Paul, and all the saints, we may always do that which is pleasing to him.”

Chanting the Litany of Saints, those gathered, preceded by the Cross, moved through the Sala Regia toward the Sistine Chapel. The procession included: non-elector Cardinal Prospero Grech, O.S.A., who will give the meditation; the General Auditor of the Apostolic Camera, Msgr. Giuseppe Sciacca; the Master of Ceremonies of Papal Liturgical Celebrations, Msgr. Guido Marini; two members each of the Colleges of Protonotaries Apostolic de Numero Participantium, of the Prelate Auditors of the Roman Rota, and of the Prelate Clerics of the Apostolic Camera; the secretary of the cardinal who will preside over the the Conclave; the pontifical masters of ceremonies; and members of the Pontifical Sistine Chapel choir.

At the entrance of the Sistine Chapel they were welcomed by: Archbishop Giovanni Angelo Becciu, substitute of the Secretariat of State; Archbishop Dominique Mamberti, secretary for Relations with States; Archbishop Georg Ganswein, Prefect of the Prefecture of the Papal Household; religious who supervise the pontifical sacristy; religious charged with hearing confessions; Colonel Daniel Rudolf Anrig, commander of the Swiss Guard; and authorized auxiliary personnel. Members of the Pontifical Swiss Guard guarded the Chapel's doors.

Each of the cardinals took their cherry-wood seats, which are arranged in the order of hierarchical precedence: first those of the Cardinal-bishops, then the Cardinal-priests, and finally the Cardinal-deacons. Together they chanted the “Veni Creator Spiritus”. On concluding, Cardinal Re invited them to take the oath of secrecy, pronouncing in Latin the following common form in front of all present, the others reading along with him:

We, the Cardinal electors present in this election of the Supreme Pontiff promise, pledge and swear, as individuals and as a group, to observe faithfully and scrupulously the prescriptions contained in the Apostolic Constitution of the Supreme Pontiff John Paul II, 'Universi Dominici Gregis', published on 22 February 1996. We likewise promise, pledge and swear that whichever of us by divine disposition is elected Roman Pontiff will commit himself faithfully to carrying out the 'munus Petrinum' of Pastor of the Universal Church and will not fail to affirm and defend strenuously the spiritual and temporal rights and the liberty of the Holy See. In a particular way, we promise and swear to observe with the greatest fidelity and with all persons, clerical or lay, secrecy regarding everything that in any way relates to the election of the Roman Pontiff and regarding what occurs in the place of the election, directly or indirectly related to the results of the voting; we promise and swear not to break this secret in any way, either during or after the election of the new Pontiff, unless explicit authorization is granted by the same Pontiff; and never to lend support or favour to any interference, opposition or any other form of intervention, whereby secular authorities of whatever order and degree or any group of people or individuals might wish to intervene in the election of the Roman Pontiff.”

Each Cardinal elector then, still following the hierarchical order of precedence, individually swore this shorter form of the oath, again in Latin, placing their right hand on the Book of Gospels opened in the centre of the Sistine Chapel:

And I, [first name] Cardinal [last name], do so promise, pledge and swear. So help me God and these Holy Gospels which I touch with my hand.”

When Cardinal James Michael Harvey, the last of the Cardinal electors to take the oath, finished, the Master of Ceremonies, Msgr. Guido Marini spoke the phrase “Extra omnes” and all those not directly participating in the Conclave left the Sistine Chapel. The doors of the Chapel were shut at 5:35pm.

Along with the Cardinal electors within the Sistine Chapel remain the Master of Ceremonies and Cardinal Prosper Grech, O.S.A., who will give the meditation concerning the grave duty incumbent on them and thus on the need to act with right intention for the good of the Universal Church prescribed in No. 52 of the Apostolic Constitution “Universi Dominici Gregis”.

After that exhortation, Cardinal Giovanni Battista Re will propose to the electors to begin with, if they so desire, the first ballot of the Conclave, which is optional in the first session.


Vatican City, 12 March 2013 (VIS) – This morning started a little later than usual in the Vatican. At 7:00am the first faithful starting arriving at St. Peter's on foot. The 115 Cardinal electors were already within the City State's walls. Each one carried his small suitcase and took the functional but austere room that had been assigned to, not chosen by, them at the Domus Sanctae Marthae. The largest one remains vacant. The one they choose as Pope, the 266th successor of Peter, will live and work there until the papal apartments are made ready for him.

In St. Peter's Square, in front of the Basilica's facade, an enormous platform has been erected for the world's major broadcasters. Permanently accredited correspondents work from their desks within the Holy See's Press Office in Via della Conciliazione. Nearby, another building has been wired for all the media that is arriving for the occasion: the Media Centre, which currently occupies the spacious lobby of the Paul VI Hall. So far, more than 5,600 journalists have been accredited for the occasion. The terrace on the Charlemagne Wing of Bernini's colonnade around St. Peter's Square has also been taken over by journalists. On the ground and in the most varied places you will find many who are connected through social networks, the “digital continent”, linking the entire world. They are all focused on the spot that Vatican Television has aimed a fixed camera at: the chimney atop the Sistine Chapel where a black or white puff of smoke will emerge.

Precisely at 10:00am, with St. Peter's Basilica beautifully lit, the “pro eligendo Romano Pontifice” Mass began. Presided by the Italian Cardinal Angelo Sodano, dean of the College of Cardinals, the over one hundred cardinals gathered concelebrated, Cardinal electors as well as those over 80, representing all of the populated continents of the globe. The celebration was open to all the faithful who wished to attend as well as members of the diplomatic corps of the 179 countries with which the Holy See maintains ties. Each held the Mass booklet, either collected at the entrance or downloaded from the Vatican website.

After the readings, the first was given in English and the second in Spanish, Cardinal Sodano delivered his homily. It was interrupted with a long applause when the cardinal referred to Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI, thanking him for his eight years of fruitful service to the Church. Cardinal Sodano asked the cardinals to work together to contribute to the unity of the Church. Together with unity he spoke of charity, asking them to “ceaselessly work to promote Justice and Peace”.

The multilingual Mass also included Mass parts in Latin, and Prayers of the Faithful in French, Swahili, Portuguese, Malay, and German. During the offertory procession the choir sang a motet by Italian Renaissance composer Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina.

The ceremony concluded after an hour and a half. Outside the sun shone, it rained, loud thunder was heard, none of which discouraged the hundreds of persons who were following the Mass inside on the six jumbo screens installed around the square.

At 1:30pm, the Cardinal electors ate lunch at the Domus Sanctae Marthae. Already beginning now, the only people who they will have contact with are those who will ensure their safety, domestic staff, and the minibus drivers who will ferry them back and forth from the Sistine Chapel to the Domus.

At 3:45pm, the cardinals will return to the Apostolic Palace. They will begin their procession to the Sistine Chapel from the Pauline Chapel singing “Veni Creator Spiritus”, invoking the assistance of the Holy Spirit. They will take the oath in which they promise to maintain the secrecy of the proceedings. When the Master of Ceremonies pronounces the phrase “Extra omnes” all those not taking part will leave the chapel, its doors will be shut, and the Conclave will begin.


Vatican City, 12 March 2013 (VIS) – Following is the text of the homily delivered this morning by Cardinal Angelo Sodano, dean of the College of Cardinals, during the “pro eligendo Romano Pontifice” Mass that was celebrated this morning at 10:00am in St. Peter's Basilica.

'Forever I will sing the mercies of the Lord' is the hymn that resounds once again near the tomb of the Apostle Peter in this important hour of the history of the Holy Church of Christ. These are the words of Psalm 89 that have flowed from our lips to adore, give thanks, and beg the Father who is in heaven. 'Misericordias Domini in aeternum cantabo' is the beautiful Latin text that has introduced us into contemplation of the One who always watches over his Church with love, sustaining her on her journey down through the ages, and giving her life through his Holy Spirit.

Such an interior attitude is ours today as we wish to offer ourselves with Christ to the Father who is in heaven, to thank him for the loving assistance that he always reserves for the Holy Church, and in particular for the brilliant Pontificate that he granted to us through the life and work of the 265th Successor of Peter, the beloved and venerable Pontiff Benedict XVI, to whom we renew in this moment all of our gratitude.

At the same time today, we implore the Lord, that through the pastoral solicitude of the Cardinal Fathers, He may soon grant another Good Shepherd to his Holy Church. In this hour, faith in the promise of Christ sustains us in the indefectible character of the Church. Indeed Jesus said to Peter: 'You are Peter and on this rock I will build my Church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against her.' (Mt. 16:18).

My brothers, the readings of the World of God that we have just heard can help us better understand the mission that Christ has entrusted to Peter and to his successors.

The Message of Love
The first reading has offered us once again a well-known messianic oracle from the second part of the book of Isaiah that is known as “the book of consolation” (Isaiah 40-66). It is a prophecy addressed to the people of Israel who are in exile in Babylon. Through this prophecy, God announces that he will send a Messiah full of mercy, a Messiah who would say: 'The spirit of the Lord God is upon me, … he has sent me to bring good news to the poor, to bind up the wounds of broken hearts, to proclaim liberty to captives, freedom to prisoners, and to announce a year of mercy of the Lord' (Isaiah 61:1-3).

The fulfilment of such a prophecy is fully realized in Jesus, who came into the world to make present the love of the Father for all people. It is a love which is especially felt in contact with suffering, injustice, poverty and all human frailty, both physical and moral. It is especially found in the well known encyclical of Pope John Paul II, 'Dives in Misericordia' where we read: 'It is precisely the mode and sphere in which love manifests itself that in biblical language is called “mercy” (No. 3).'

This mission of mercy has been entrusted by Christ to the pastors of his Church. It is a mission that must be embraced by every priest and bishop, but is especially entrusted to the Bishop of Rome, Shepherd of the universal Church. It is in fact to Peter that Jesus said: “Simon son of John, do you love me more than these?... Feed my lambs (John 21:15). In his commentary on these words, St. Augustine wrote: 'May it be therefore the task of love to feed the flock of the Lord' (In Iohannis Evangelium, 123, 5; PL 35, 1967).

It is indeed this love that urges the Pastors of the Church to undertake their mission of service of the people of every age, from immediate charitable work even to the highest form of service, that of offering to every person the light of the Gospel and the strength of grace.

This is what Benedict XVI wrote in his Lenten Message for this year (No. 3). “Sometimes we tend, in fact, to reduce the term “charity” to solidarity or simply humanitarian aid. It is important, however, to remember that the greatest work of charity is evangelization, which is the “ministry of the word”. There is no action more beneficial – and therefore more charitable – towards one’s neighbour than to break the bread of the word of God, to share with him the Good News of the Gospel, to introduce him to a relationship with God: evangelization is the highest and the most integral promotion of the human person. As the Servant of God Pope Paul VI wrote in the Encyclical 'Populorum Progressio', the proclamation of Christ is the first and principal contributor to development (cf. No. 16).”

The Message of Unity

The second reading is taken from the letter to the Ephesians., written by the Apostle Paul in this very city of Rome during his first imprisonment (62-63 AD) It is a sublime letter in which Paul presents the mystery of Christ and his Church. While the first part is doctrinal (ch.1-3), the second part, from which today’s reading is taken, has a much more pastoral tone (ch. 4-6). In this part Paul teaches the practical consequences of the doctrine that was previously presented and begins with a strong appeal for church unity: 'As a prisoner for the Lord, then, I urge you to live a life worthy of the calling you have received. Be completely humble and gentle; be patient, bearing with one another in love. Make every effort to keep the unity of the Spirit through the bond of peace.' (Eph 4,1-3).

St. Paul then explains that in the unity of the Church, there is a diversity of gifts, according to the manifold grace of Christ, but this diversity is in function of the building up of the one body of Christ. “So Christ himself gave the apostles, the prophets, the evangelists, the pastors and teachers, to equip his people for works of service, so that the body of Christ may be built up (Eph 4:11-12).

In our text, St. Paul teaches that each of us must work to build up the unity of the Church, so that “From him the whole body, joined and held together by every supporting ligament, grows and builds itself up in love, as each part does its work (Eph 4:16). Each of us is therefore called to cooperate with the Successor of Peter, the visible foundation of such an ecclesial unity.

The Mission of the Pope
Brothers and sisters in Christ today’s Gospel takes us back to the Last Supper, when the Lord said to his Apostles: 'This is my commandment: that you love one another as I have loved you' (John 15:12). The text is linked to the first reading from the Messiah’s actions in the first reading from the prophet Isaiah, reminding us that the fundamental attitude of the Pastors of the Church is love. It is this love that urges us to offer our own lives for our brothers and sisters. Jesus himself tells us: 'There is no greater love than to lay down one’s life for one’s friends' (John 15:12).

The basic attitude of every Shepherd is therefore to lay down one’s life for his sheep (John 10:15). This also applies to the Successor of Peter, Pastor of the Universal Church. As high and universal the pastoral office, so much greater must be the charity of the Shepherd. In the heart of every Successor of Peter, the words spoken one day by the Divine Master to the humble fisherman of Galilee have resounded: 'Diligis me plus his? Pasce agnos meos ... pasce oves meas'; (Do you love me more than these? Feed my lambs ... feed my sheep!) (John 21:15-17)

In the wake of this service of love toward the Church and towards all of humanity, the last popes have been builders of so many good initiatives for people and for the international community, tirelessly promoting justice and peace. Let us pray that the future Pope may continue this unceasing work on the world level.

Moreover, this service of charity is part of the intimate nature of the Church. Pope Benedict XVI reminded us of this fact when he said: 'The service of charity is also a constitutive element of the Church’s mission and an indispensable expression of her very being'; (Apostolic Letter in the form of a Motu Proprio Intima Ecclesiae natura, November 11, 2012, introduction; cf. Deus caritas est, n. 25).

It is a mission of charity that is proper to the Church, and in a particular way is proper to the Church of Rome, that in the beautiful expression of St. Ignatius of Antioch, is the Church that 'presides in charity' (praesidet caritati) (cf. Ad Romanos (preface).; Lumen Gentium, n. 13).

My brothers, let us pray that the Lord will grant us a Pontiff who will embrace this noble mission with a generous heart. We ask this of the Lord, through the intercession of Mary most holy, Queen of the Apostles and of all the Martyrs and Saints, who through the course of history, made this Church of Rome glorious through the ages. Amen.


Vatican City, 12 March 2013 (VIS) – This afternoon, 115 cardinals will enter the Conclave to elect Pope emeritus Benedict XVI's successor. The two Cardinal electors who are not participating are Cardinal Julius Riyadi Darmaatmadja, S.J., archbishop emeritus of Jakarta, Indonesia, for health reasons and Cardinal Keith O’Brien, ex-archbishop of Edinburgh, Scotland, for personal reasons.

Categorizing the cardinals from area of origin, the 60 European cardinals come from: Italy: 28. Germany: 6. Spain: 5. Poland: 4. France: 4. Austria: 1. Belgium: 1. Switzerland: 1. Portugal: 2. Netherlands: 1. Ireland: 1. Czech Republic: 1. Bosnia-Herzegovina: 1. Hungary: 1. Lithuania: 1. Croatia:1. and Slovenia: 1.

The 14 Northern American cardinals come from: the United States: 11. and Canada: 3.

The 19 Latin American cardinals are from: Brazil: 5. Mexico: 3. Argentina: 2. Colombia: 1. Chile: 1. Venezuela: 1. the Dominican Republic: 1. Cuba: 1. Honduras: 1. Peru: 1. Bolivia: 1. and Ecuador: 1.

The 11 African cardinals come from: Nigeria: 2. Tanzania: 1. South Africa: 1. Ghana: 1. Sudan: 1. Kenya: 1. Senegal: 1. Egypt: 1. Guinea: 1. and the Democratic Republic of the Congo: 1

The 10 Asian cardenales are from: India: 4. the Philippines: 1. Vietnam: 1. Indonesia: 1. Lebanon: 1. China: 1. and Sri Lanka: 1.

The sole cardinal from Oceania hails from Australia.

Below is the list of Cardinal electors and the roles that they currently serve in, following the Church's hierarchical order of precedence. Please note that the cardinals who serve in the Roman Curia (secretary of State, heads of the Church's congregations and councils, etc.) are listed with their role before the beginning of the period of the Sede Vacante, but at that moment they were automatically relieved of their offices. The two exceptions to this norm are the Cardinal Camerlengo and the Major Penitentiary who continue to perform their previous functions.

Giovanni Battista RE, Prefect Emeritus of the Congregation for Bishops
Tarcisio BERTONE, Camerlengo of the Apostolic Chamber

Eastern Rite Cardinal Patriarchs
Antonios NAGUIB, Patriarch Emeritus of Alexandria of the Copts, Egypt
Béchara Boutros RAÏ, Patriarch of Antioch of the Maronites, Lebanon

Godfried DANNEELS, Archbishop Emeritus of Brussels, Belgium
Joachim MEISNER, Archbishop of Cologne, Germany
Nicolas de Jesús LÓPEZ RODRÍGUEZ, Archbishop of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
Roger Michael MAHONY, Archbishop Emeritus of Los Angeles, California, USA
Jaime Lucas ORTEGA Y ALAMINO, Archbishop of San Cristobal de la Habana, Cuba
Jean-Claude TURCOTTE, Archbishop Emeritus of Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Vinko PULJIĆ, Archbishop of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Juan SANDOVAL ÍÑIGUEZ, Archbishop Emeritus of Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico
Antonio María ROUCO VARELA, Archbishop of Madrid, Spain
Dionigi TETTAMANZI, Archbishop Emeritus of Milan, Italy
Polycarp PENGO, Archbishop of Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania
Christoph SCHÖNBORN, Archbishop of Vienna, Austria
Norberto RIVERA CARRERA, Archbishop of Mexico City, Mexico
Francis Eugene GEORGE, Archbishop of Chicago, Illinois, USA
Zenon GROCHOLEWSKI, Prefect of the Congregation for Catholic Education
Crescenzio SEPE, Archbishop of Naples, Italy.
Walter KASPER, President of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity
Ivan DIAS, Prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples
Geraldo Majella AGNELO, Archbishop Emeritus of São Salvador da Bahia, Brazil
Audrys Juozas BAČKIS, Archbishop of Vilnius, Lithuania
Francisco Javier ERRÁZURIZ OSSA, Archbishop Emeritus of Santiago de Chile, Chile
Julio TERRAZAS SANDOVAL, Archbishop of Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia
Wilfrid Fox NAPIER, Archbishop of Durban, South Africa
Óscar Andrés RODRÍGUEZ MARADIAGA, Archbishop of Tegucigalpa, Honduras
Juan Luis CIPRIANI THORNE, Archbishop of Lima, Peru
Cláudio HUMMES, Prefect of the Congregation for the Clergy
Jorge Mario BERGOGLIO, Archbishop of Buenos Aires, Argentina
José da Cruz POLICARPO, Patriarch of Lisbon, Portugal
Severino POLETTO, Archbishop Emeritus of Turin, Italy
Karl LEHMANN, Bishop of Mainz, Germany
Angelo SCOLA, Archbishop of Milan, Italy
Anthony Olubunmi OKOGIE, Archbishop Emeritus of Lagos, Nigeria
Gabriel ZUBEIR WAKO, Archbishop of Khartoum, Sudan
Carlos AMIGO VALLEJO, Archbishop Emeritus of Seville, Spain
Justin Francis RIGALI, Archbishop Emeritus of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
Ennio ANTONELLI, President of the Pontifical Council for the Family
Peter Kodwo Appiah TURKSON, President of the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace
Telesphore Placidus TOPPO, Archbishop of Ranchi, India
George PELL, Archbishop of Sydney, Australia
Josip BOZANIĆ, Archbishop of Zagreb, Croatia
Jean-Baptiste PHAM MINH MÂN, Archbishop of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Philippe BARBARIN, Archbishop of Lyon, France
Péter ERDŐ, Archbishop of Esztergom-Budapest, Hungary
Marc OUELLET, Prefect Emeritus of the Congregation for Bishops
Agostino VALLINI, Vicar General of His Holiness for Rome, Italy
Jorge Liberato UROSA SAVINO, Archbishop of Caracas, Santiago de Venezuela
Jean-Pierre RICARD, Archbishop of Bordeaux, France
Antonio CAÑIZARES LLOVERA, Prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments
Sean Patrick O'MALLEY, Archbishop of Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Stanisław DZIWISZ, Archbishop of Krakow, Poland
Carlo CAFFARRA, Archbishop of Bologna, Italy
Seán Baptist BRADY, Archbishop of Armagh, Ireland
Lluís MARTÍNEZ SISTACH, Archbishop of Barcelona, Spain
André VINGT-TROIS, Archbishop of Paris, France
Angelo BAGNASCO, Archbishop of Genoa, Italy
Théodore-Adrien SARR, Archbishop of Dakar, Senegal
Oswald GRACIAS, Archbishop of Bombay, India
Francisco ROBLES ORTEGA, Archbishop of Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico
Daniel N. DiNARDO, Archbishop of Galveston-Houston, Texas, USA
Odilo Pedro SCHERER, Archbishop of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
John NJUE, Archbishop of Nairobi, Kenya
Raúl Eduardo VELA CHIRIBOGA, Archbishop Emeritus of Quito, Ecuador
Laurent MONSENGWO PASINYA, Archbishop of Kinshasa, Congo (Dem. Rep.)
Paolo ROMEO, Archbishop of Palermo, Italy
Donald William WUERL, Archbishop of Washington, D.C., USA
Raymundo DAMASCENO ASSIS, Archbishop of Aparecida, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Kazimierz NYCZ, Archbishop of Warsaw, Poland
Albert Malcolm Ranjith PATABENDIGE DON, Archbishop of Colombo, Sri Lanka
Reinhard MARX, Archbishop of Munich, Germany
George ALENCHERRY, Major Archbishop of Ernakulam Angamaly of the Syro-Malabars, India
Thomas Christopher COLLINS, Archbishop of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Dominik DUKA, Archbishop of Prague, Czech Republic
Willem Jacobus EIJK, Archbishop of Utrecht, Netherlands
Giuseppe BETORI, Archbishop of Florence, Italy
Timothy Michael DOLAN, Archbishop of New York, New York, USA
Rainer Maria WOELKI, Archbishop of Berlin, Germany
John TONG HON, Bishop of Hong Kong, China
Baselios Cleemis THOTTUNKAL, Major Archbishop of Trivandrum of the Syro-Malabars, India
John Olorunfemi ONAIYEKAN, Archbishop of Abuja, Nigeria
Rubén SALAZAR GÓMEZ, Archbishop of Bogota, Colombia
Luis Antonio TAGLE, Archbishop of Manila, Philippines

Jean-Louis TAURAN, President of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue
Attilio NICORA, President of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See
William Joseph LEVADA, Prefect Emeritus of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith
Franc RODÉ, Prefect Emeritus of the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life
Leonardo SANDRI, Prefect of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches
Giovanni LAJOLO, President Emeritus of the Governatorate of Vatican City State
Paul Josef CORDES, President Emeritus of the Pontifical Council “Cor Unum”
Angelo COMASTRI, Archpriest of the Basilica of St. Peter
Stanisław RYŁKO, President of the Pontifical Council for the Laity
Raffaele FARINA, Archivist Emeritus of the Vatican Secret Archives
Angelo AMATO, Prefect of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints
Robert SARAH, President of the Pontifical Council “Cor Unum”
Francesco MONTERISI, Archpriest Emeritus of Saint Paul Outside-the-Walls Basilica
Raymond Leo BURKE, Prefect of the Apostolic Signatura
Kurt KOCH, President of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity
Paolo SARDI, Patron of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta
Mauro PIACENZA, Prefect of the Congregation for the Clergy
Velasio DE PAOLIS, President Emeritus of the Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See
Gianfranco RAVASI, President of the Pontifical Council for Culture
Fernando FILONI, Prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples
Manuel MONTEIRO de CASTRO, Major Penitentiary of the Apostolic Penitentiary
Santos ABRIL y CASTELLÓ, Archpriest of Saint Mary Major Basilica
Antonio Maria VEGLIÒ, President of the Pontifical Council for Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant People
Giuseppe BERTELLO, President of the Governatorate of Vatican City State
Francesco COCCOPALMERIO, President of the Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts
João BRAZ de AVIZ, Prefect of the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life
Edwin Frederick O'BRIEN, Grand Master of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem
Domenico CALCAGNO, President of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See
Giuseppe VERSALDI, President of the Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See
James Michael HARVEY, Archpriest of Saint Paul Outside-the-Walls Basilica


Vatican City, 12 March 2013 (VIS) – Beginning with the Conclave in 2005, in order to better distinguish the colour of the “fumate” (smoke signalling the election or non-election of a pontiff), a secondary apparatus is used to generate the smoke in addition to the traditional stove in which the Cardinal electors' ballots are burned. This device stands next to the ballot-burning stove and has a compartment where, according to the results of the vote, different coloured-smoke generating compounds can be mixed. The result is requested by means of an electronic control panel and lasts for several minutes while the ballots are burning in the other stove.

For a black “fumata” the chemical compound is made of potassium perchlorate, anthracene, and sulphur. The white “fumata” is a mixture of potassium chlorate, lactose, and rosin. The rosin is a natural amber resin obtained from conifers. Prior to 2005 the black smoke was obtained by using smoke black or pitch and the white smoke by using wet straw.

The stove-pipes of the stove and the smoke-producing device join up and exit the roof of the Sistine Chapel as one pipe leading to the chimney installed on the ridge of the roof, which is visible from St. Peter's Square. To improve the airflow the pipe is pre-heated by electrical resistance and it also has a backup fan.


Vatican City, 12 March 2013 (VIS) – We inform our readers that, on the occasion of the opening of the Conclave, we will transmit two bulletins today. The second will be sent if or when there is a “fumata”.
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